By National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, Committee on Toxicology, Committee on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels

ISBN-10: 0309127556

ISBN-13: 9780309127554

This ebook is the 7th quantity within the sequence "Acute publicity guide degrees for chosen Airborne Chemicals", and comprises AEGLs for acetone cyanohydrin, carbon disulfide, monochloroacetic acid, and phenol. on the request of the dep. of safeguard, the nationwide examine Council has reviewed the correct medical literature compiled by means of knowledgeable panel and tested Acute publicity instruction degrees (AEGLs) for 12 new chemical substances. AEGLs characterize publicity degrees less than which adversarial wellbeing and fitness results are usually not more likely to ensue and are valuable in responding to emergencies reminiscent of unintended or intentional chemical releases locally, the place of work, transportation, the army, and for the remediation of infected websites. 3 AEGLs are licensed for every chemical, representing publicity degrees that lead to: outstanding yet reversible soreness; long-lasting wellbeing and fitness results; and, life-threatening overall healthiness affects.

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Extra resources for Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals, Volume 7

Example text

A minor pathway for cyanide detoxification is the formation of 2aminothiazoline-4-carboxylic acid from cyanide and cystine. This reaction occurs spontaneously both in vitro and in vivo and is not enzyme-dependent. The reaction product has been identified in urine of experimental animals and in humans exposed to high concentrations of cyanide (Wilson 1987; Wood and Cooley 1956). Acetone is oxidized in the liver by cytochrome P450 2E1 to acetol. Acetol in turn can be used for gluconeogenesis, that is, biosynthesis of glucose, either 29 Acetone Cyanohydrin via further oxidation to methylglyoxal in the liver or extrahepatically via reduction to L-1,2-propanediol, which can return to the liver where it is oxidized to Llactaldehyde and further to L-lactate, which is then incorporated into glucose.

2003 Grybat et al. I. du Pont de Nemours and Co. I. du Pont de Nemours and Co. I. du Pont de Nemours and Co. 1998 Since the elimination reaction of HCN from acetone cyanohydrin is an endothermic reaction, the decomposition of acetone cyanohydrin is accelerated by heat. At temperatures of 120°C or higher, acetone cyanohydrin decomposes with 18 Acute Exposure Guideline Levels the evolution of HCN (IUCLID 2000). Rather than acting as mere diluents, water and ethanol (especially in the presence of amines) exert specific dissociative effects on acetone cyanohydrin (Stewart and Fontana 1940).

Initial symptoms after mild exposure to acetone cyanohydrin range from cardiac palpitation, headache, weakness, dizziness, nausea, and vomiting to nose, eye, throat, and skin irritation. Acetone cyanohydrin behaves as its molar equivalent in cyanide both in vitro and in vivo. All the pharmacologic actions of cyanide result from cyanide’s reversible complex with the ferric (+3) state of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase also known as ferrocytochrome c oxygen oxidoreductase. Cessation of electron transport across the inner mitochondrial membrane results in inhibition of oxygen utilization and causes hypoxia and cellular destruction.

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Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals, Volume 7 by National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, Committee on Toxicology, Committee on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels


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