By Mike Wright, Bart Clarysse, Philippe Mustar, Andy Lockett
Educational Entrepreneurship in Europe Wright, M. Clarysse, B. Mustar, P. Lockett, A. This booklet advances our figuring out of collage spin-off construction and improvement in environments open air the high-tech clusters of the U.S.. whereas there was sizeable college spin-off job across the world lately, a variety of significant facets are little understood. The authors argue that the nature of universities is altering as lowered public investment displays a public debate on their position in society. an incredible point of this overseas phenomenon is an elevated emphasis at the commercialization of college study and on educational entrepreneurship. those new ventures consequently contain the spinning-off of know-how and data generated by means of universities. The authors undertake a multi-level procedure of their exam of college spin-offs. eu case experiences are in particular chosen to mirror the variety of the institutional surroundings. In specific, devices of research related to universities, expertise move workplaces, spin-off companies, finance companies and person marketers and groups are generally analysed in quantitative and qualitative stories. To finish, coverage implications for the longer term winning improvement of spin-offs are pointed out. This attention-grabbing ebook will entice a wide-ranging viewers together with lecturers, coverage makers, researchers and practitioners with an curiosity in educational entrepreneurship and college spin-offs, and, extra normally, in enterprise and administration and entrepreneurship.
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In Germany, the public authorities attempted to foster a venture capital market from the 1970s by mobilizing banks’ investment. However, the ﬁrst German venture capital fund created in 1975, the Deutsche Wagnisﬁnanzierungsgesellschaft (WFG) never succeeded in inducing larger market development (Becker and Hellmann, 2003). , 2005). A number of venture capital initiatives were introduced in France from the early 1970s, such as the creation of Sociétés ﬁnancières d’innovation (innovation ﬁnance companies) to facilitate the industrial application in France of technological research and the promotion and exploitation of inventions, the establishment of the Société Française de Garantie des Financements des PME (SOFARIS) as a fund to guarantee the risks relating to their equity investment in innovative SMEs, and measures to enable the creation of Sociétés de Capital Risque (venture capital companies) with attractive tax beneﬁts for shareholders.
In each category a random selection of four ﬁrms was made. From the 96 identiﬁed VC ﬁrms, 65 (60 per cent) agreed to participate in the study. NOTES 1. NUTEK, the Swedish Business Development Agency, is a national agency under the charge of the Ministry of Industry, Employment and Communication that handles issues concerning industrial policies. 2. VINNOVA, the Swedish Agency for Innovation Systems, integrates research and development in technology, transport and working life. VINNOVA’s mission is to promote sustainable growth by ﬁnancing R&D and developing eﬀective innovation systems.
We describe each of these in the following paragraphs. Researchers’ status In several countries, the civil servant status of an academic prevents him from participating in the creation of a private enterprise in order to transfer their research results. In France this status has been amended, so that state employees can now create a ﬁrm and leave their laboratory without losing their status (with the possibility of returning to the institution in case of failure), or participate in the creation of a ﬁrm without leaving their laboratory.
Academic Entrepreneurship in Europe by Mike Wright, Bart Clarysse, Philippe Mustar, Andy Lockett